Trichomoniasis is a protozoan infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas gallinae. It primarily affects the falcons’ upper digestive tract, including the crop, esophagus, and oral cavity.


Falcons can contract Trichomoniasis through ingesting infected prey, contaminated water sources, or contact with infected birds, such as pigeons or doves, which can act as parasite carriers. Treatment typically involves the use of specific antiprotozoal medications prescribed by a veterinarian.


Diagnosing Trichomoniasis in falcons often involves observing the characteristic oral lesions and conducting laboratory tests to identify the presence of the parasite.

Symptoms & Side Effects

Infected falcons may show signs of discomfort, such as inflammation and ulceration in the oral cavity and esophagus, making it difficult for falcons to consume an adequate diet. Trichomoniasis can cause severe health issues in falcons, including the formation of lesions or yellowish plaques in the oral cavity and esophagus. These lesions can lead to difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, weight loss, and overall debilitation.

Trichomoniasis can have significant impacts on falcon populations, particularly during breeding seasons. Infected parent falcons can transmit the parasite to their offspring through feeding, leading to high mortality rates in nestlings. The disease can progress rapidly in falcons; if left untreated, it can lead to death within a few days to weeks. Therefore, early detection and treatment are crucial for a successful outcome.

Treatment and Recovery

Along with antiprotozoal treatment, supportive care, such as fluid therapy and nutritional support, may be necessary to aid in the falcon’s recovery and to alleviate dehydration and weight loss.

Preventive measures for Trichomoniasis in falcons include minimizing contact with infected birds, providing clean and uncontaminated water sources, and regularly cleaning and disinfecting perches and equipment to reduce the risk of transmission.

Trichomoniasis outbreaks in falcons have been associated with overcrowding and stressful conditions, such as in falcon rehabilitation centres or falconry facilities. Maintaining appropriate housing conditions and minimizing stress can help reduce the risk of infection.

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